Back to the problem. Yesterday’s vehicles were merely complicated. The automotive Cyber-Physical Systems of tomorrow will be complex. This difference has fundamental consequences. For example, complex (software) systems are difficult, if not impossible, to realise with hierarchical, deterministic system engineering processes.
Further, at the OEM where I’m consulting, software system engineering is not integrated into vehicle system engineering. Software is still seen merely as a collection of components that contribute to the operation of a vehicle rather than the overall intelligence that enables it to operate as a cyber-physical system.
Perhaps worse is that engineering mentality must catch up with the times – I still see architectural decomposition process descriptions that end up at an ECU. In other words, while automotive OEMs have woken up to the importance of software, they have yet to understand the consequences for their systems engineering.